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頑張れ、受験生!センター試験・英語長文の読み方

センター試験2017を今週末に迎えます。直前になっても「英語長文」に自信がもてなくて、不安な気持ちでいる方も多いかもしれません。しかし、これまでガンバって勉強に励んできたあなたなら、ちょっとしたコツをつかむだけで、きっとクリアできるようになりますよ。そのコツを伝授しましょう。

そのコツは、「英文を大きな意味のカタマリを見つけて、前から読み進める」というものです。これを『訳し下し』と言っているのですが、ほんの少しの練習で、ずいぶんと読み方が変わるかもしれませんよ。ぜひ、試してみてください。

 2016年の第6問の英文で練習しましょう。

《問題文》

(1) Opera is an art form that celebrates the human voice at its highest levelof expression.    No other art form creates excitement and moves the heart in the way that opera does, especially when performed by a great singer. Such singers are trained to present some of the greatest and most challenging music that has ever been composed for the human voice.
(2) Opera is an important part of the Western classical music tradition.    It uses music, words, and actions to bring a dramatic story to life.    Opera started in Italy at the end of the 16th century and later became popular throughout Europe.     Over the years, it has responded to various musical and theatrical developments around the world and continues to do so.    In recent decades, much wider audiences have been introduced to opera through modern recording technology.    Some singers have become celebrities thanks to performing on radio, on television, and in the cinema.
(3) However, in recent years, opera has been facing serious challenges. The causes of some of these are beyond its control.   One current challenge to opera is economic.    The current world economic slowdown had meant that less money is available for cultural institutions and artists.    This shortage of money raises the broader question of how much should be paid to support opera singers and other artists.   Society seems to accept the large salaries paid to business managers and the multi-million-dollar contracts given to sports athletes.    But what about opera singers Somehow, people have the idea that artists can be creative only if they suffer in poverty, but this is unrealistic : If artists, including opera singers, lack the support they need, valuable talent is wasted.
(4) Not only the shortage of money, but also the way money is managed in the opera world had led to hardships.   Principal singers are generally paid performance fees once they complete a show.    They typically receive nothing during the many weeks of rehearsal before a show starts.    To prepare for a role, they must pay the costs of lessons and coaching sessions.    If they become ill or cancel their performance, they lose their performance fee. The insecurity of this system puts the future of opera at risk.
(5) Another problem faced by opera is how to meet the demands of audiences who are influenced by popular entertainment.    Pop singers are often judged as much on the basis of how they look as how they sound. Therefore, opera singers, performing to audiences influenced by this popular culture, are now expected to be "models who sing."    These demands may be unrealistic and possibly harmful.    Opera singers simply cannot make a sound big enough to fill a large theater or concert hall without a microphone if their body weight is too low.    Emphasizing physical appearance over singing ability may cause audiences to miss out on the human voice at its best.
(6) There are no easy solutions to opera's problems and there are many different opinions about the value of opera.    However, every year many young people register for music courses with hopes and dreams of developing their talents in this special art form.    The fact that opera has survived many obstacles and continues to attract the rising generation demonstrates that it remains a respected art form full of value.

 

《読み下し例》

(1) Opera is an art form
 オペラは芸術形式です
that celebrates the human voice at its highest levelof expression.
最高の表現レベルの人間の声を賞賛する
No other art form creates excitement and moves the heart
興奮を生み出し心を動かす芸術形式はほかにはない
in the way that opera does,
オペラのように
especially when performed by a great singer.
優れた歌手によって演じられるときは特に
Such singers are trained
そのような歌手は訓練されています
to present some of the greatest and most challenging music
最も優れた最も困難な音楽の一部を上演するように
that hasever been composed for the human voice.
人間の声のためにこれまでに作曲されてきた

(2) Opera is an important part
  オペラは重要な一部です
of the Western classical music tradition.
西洋のクラシック音楽の伝統の
It uses music, words, and actions
それは音楽、言葉、演技を使用します
to bring a dramatic story to life.
劇的な物語を生き生きとしたものにするために
Opera started in Italy at the end of the 16th century
オペラは16世紀末にイタリアで始まった
and later became popular throughout Europe.
その後ヨーロッパ中に普及しました
Over the years,
長年
it has responded to various musical and theatrical developments
オペラは様々な音楽や演劇の発展に対応してきました
around the world
世界中の
and continues to do so.
今後もそうし続ける
In recent decades,
ここ数十年
much wider audiences have been introduced to opera
さらに幅広い聴衆がオペラに触れるようになってきている
through modern recording technology.
現代の録音技術を通して
Some singers have become celebrities
有名になっている歌手もいます
thanks to performing on radio, on television, and in the cinema.
ラジオやテレビ、映画での歌唱のおかげで

(3) However, in recent years,
  しかし、近年
opera has been facing serious challenges.
オペラは深刻な何代に直面しています
The causes of some of these are beyond its control.
これらのいくつかの原因は対応のしようがないものです
One current challenge to opera is economic.
オペラの現代の難題の一つは経済的なものです
The current world economic slowdown had meant
現代の世界的な景気の後退は意味していた
that less money is available for cultural institutions and artists.
文化団体や芸術家に使うことができる資金が少なくなる
This shortage of money raises the broader question
この資金不足は幅広い問題を引き起こします
of how much should be paid to support opera singers and other artists.
オペラ歌手やその他の芸術家を支援するのにどのくらい支払われるべきかという
Society seems to accept the large salaries paid to business managers
社会は企業経営者に支払われる多額の給料は受け入れているようです
and the multi-million-dollar contracts given to sports athletes.
スポーツ選手に支払われる何百万ドルの契約は
But what about opera singers?
しかしオペラ歌手についてはどうでしょう
Somehow, people have the idea that artists can be creative
どうやら、人々は芸術家は創造的になれないという考えを持っているようだ
only if they suffer in poverty,
貧困に苦しまなければ
but this is unrealistic :
しかしこれは非現実的です
If artists, including opera singers,
もし、オペラ歌手を含む芸術家が
lack the support they need,
必要とする支援を受けられなければ
valuable talent is wasted.
貴重な才能が無駄になる

(4) Not only the shortage of money,
  資金不足だけでなく
but also the way money is managed in the opera world
オペラ界の資金の運営方法が
had led to hardships.
困難を引き起こしてきました
Principal singers are generally paid performance fees
主要な歌手には、一般的には出演料が支払われます
once they complete a show.
ショーを終えた時点で
They typically receive nothing
彼らはたいてい何も受け取りません
during the many weeks of rehearsal before a show starts.
ショーが始まる前の何週間ものリハーサルの間は
To prepare for a role,
役の準備のために
they must pay the costs of lessons and coaching sessions.
彼らはレッスンやコーチングセッションの費用を支払わねばなりません
If they become ill or cancel their performance,
もし、病気になったり出演をキャンセルすれば
they lose their performance fee.
彼らは出演料を失います
The insecurity of this system puts the future of opera at risk.
このシステムの不安定さがオペラの将来を危機に晒しているのです

(5) Another problem faced by opera is
 オペラが直面するもう一つの問題は
how to meet the demands of audiences
聴衆の要求にどのように応えるか
who are influenced by popular entertainment.
大衆娯楽の影響を受けている
Pop singers are often judged
ポップ歌手はしばしば評価されます
as much on the basis of how they look
彼らの外見に基づいて
as how they sound.
彼らの音楽と同じくらい
Therefore, opera singers,
それゆえ、オペラ歌手は
performing to audiences influenced by this popular culture,
この大衆文化の影響を受けた聴衆に対して演じるために
are now expected to be "models who sing."
「歌うモデル」であることを期待されます
These demands may be unrealistic and possibly harmful.
このような要求は非現実的で有害であるかも知れない
Opera singers simply cannot make a sound big
オペラ歌手は大きな声を出すことは決してできません
enough to fill a large theater or concert hall
大きな劇場やコンサートホールに行き渡るほどの
without a microphone
マイク無しで
if their body weight is too low.
彼らの体重が低すぎれば
Enphasizing physical appearance over singing ability
歌唱力以上に肉体的な外見を強調すれば
may cause audiences to miss out on the human voice at its best.
聴衆は最高の人間の声を聞き逃してしまうことになるかも知れない

(6) There are no easy solutions to opera's problems
 オペラの問題の簡単な解決策はありません
and there are many different opinions about the value of opera.
そして、オペラの価値については多くの異なる意見があります
However, every year many young people
しかし、毎年多くの若者たちが
register for music courses with hopes and dreams
希望と夢を抱いて音楽課程を受講している
of developing their talents in this special art form.
この特別な芸術形式において自分の才能を伸ばす
The fact that opera has survived many obstacles
オペラが多くの困難を乗り越えてきた事実
and continues to attract the rising generation
若い世代を魅了し続けている(事実)
demonstrates

実証しています

that it remains a respected art form full of value.
それが依然として価値が高い芸術形式であることを

 

 

 

この例文だけでも、5回くらい練習してみてください。「あっ、こんなふうでいいのかなぁ」って、読み下しの感覚がつかめるのではありませんか。

あなたはこれまで、一生懸命に勉強してきたのですから、その実力は身についています。自信を持って、センター試験に挑んでください。

少しだけでも、あなたの応援となれば嬉しくおもいます。

頑張れ、受験生!